Alhamisi, 2 Aprili 2015

HOW DID THE SECOND WORLD WAR LED TO THE RISE OF WORLD SOCIALISM

:
Before the outbreak of Second World War socialist phenomena was purely a Russian issue only being practiced by only United Soviet Union. But after the Second World War the socialist ideology began to spread in every part of the World.
1.      Spread of socialism in East Europe: The Second World War enabled Russia to spread the socialist ideology in the eastern European nations, because Russia was among the victor country that had been occupied by Nazi. German she began to spread and plant socialist ideology. Country like Poland East Germany, Hungary Czechoslovakia Bulgaria.
2.      The occurrence of the socialist revolution: In other parts of the world like in China in Cuba and in Chile, was a great contribution to the rise of world socialism, such revolution brought awareness among the world reputation and later alone became model for other countries both in Africa and Russia to adopt the socialist ideology after realizing the capitalism and imperialism are dangerous for world peace thus the adaptation of socialism and triumph of socialism.
3.      Intensification of anti-colonial struggle: In the colonization of the both Africa and Asia, that intensified during the aftermath of world war two many anti-colonial anti-struggle adopted the socialist ideologist as the best mean of getting rid of colonial occupation, for instance Angola, Tanganyika, Mozambique and many other countries adopted Socialist ideology to fight colonialism in their nations.
4.      The rise of the USSR: As a leading world Super Power after world war two. It should be noted that the aftermath of the world war two made USA and USSR to become a leading blocs in the world, USSR used her world influence, her military supremacy and veto power of UN to spread and support socialist Ideologies in the world, this influence made the socialism to become triumph in the world.
5.      The rise of Cold war: The Second World War led to the rise of Cold war between the socialist block led by the USSR and the capitalist block led by USA. The cold war was the competition between these two blocks to win influence and domination to the world. Russia used this cold war to support many military campaigns to the capitalist nation in Africa, Europe and Asia which led to the further spread of socialist ideology.
6.      Mechanism used by the soviet union:  These includes training revolutionaries in the soviet union, provision scholars and provision of military support and financial support especially after the second world war made many third world nations to rely on socialist ideology and practicing of socialism in their nations for instance in Tanzania, Zambia, Angola among others.
7. Development and internationalizing: The theory scientific socialism called for unity and solidarity among workers and provision in the world and launch war against the evil of capitalist. Through such campaigns the world class consciousness was developed in every corner of the world. The communist international movements were developed with the role of popularizing world socialism.

THESE NOTES HAVE BEEN PREPARED BY
TEACHER SOSPETER THOMAS famously known as MWL SOS
PHONE NO: +255753008862,+255655006288,
LOCATED: EMARX TRAINING CENTER, SABA SABA, DODOMA.


Ijumaa, 2 Mei 2014

CRISES IN THE CAPITALIST SYSTEM:


CRISES IN THE CAPITALIST WORLD
These are the conflicts and problems which upset the capitalist production mainly in Europe and in the colonies especially in Africa and Asia.
These crises were as follows:
1. The First World War
2. The Great Economic Depression
3. The Second World War
1. THE FIRST WORLD WAR
This was the war fought between the members of Triple Entente and the members of Triple Aliance from 28th July 1914 to 11th November in 1918.
·        The Triple Alliance was formed by Germany, Italy, Austria-Hungary, Turkey and Bulgaria
·        The Triple Entente was formed by Britain, France, Russia, Japan, Romania, Serbia, Belgium, Greece, Portugal, Montenegro and USA
THE TREND OF THE WAR
The WW1 started on 28th July 1914 and ended on 11th November 1914
·        The war started first in Balkans Peninsular in which the Austria Hungary heir Archduke Francis Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sophie were assassinated by a Bosnian Serb nationalist Gavrilo Princip on 28th June 1914 in Bosnia capital city Sarajevo.
·        The assassination of Ferdinand setoff diplomatic crisis between Austria-Hungary and Serbia because few days later Austria-Hungary government gave Ultimatum to Serbia to submit the assassin but Serbia refused.
·        On 28th July 1914 Austria-Hungary invaded Bosnia with support from Russia
·        On 2nd August Germany invaded Belgium and Luxemburg and 3rd August 1914 Germany declared war against France in the fear that France would help Russia.
·        On 4th August the Britain declared war against Germany.
·        The USA joined the war on 6th April 1917 to assist the members of the Triple Entente
·        The war ended on 11th November 1918 in which Germany was defeated by victorious powers.
THE CAUSES OF THE WW1
The causes for the WW1 can be recognized into two groups namely short term and long term causes.

THE LONG TERM CAUSES
These were the causes which prepared grounds for the occurrence of the war. These factors are as follows.
1.      The development of capitalism in the highest stage in 1860’s
This created a stiff competition among capitalist powers such as Germany, France, Britain, Italy and Austria Hungary. For example Germany fought a war with France over the issue of Alsace and Lorain rich region in coal in Franco-Prussian war of 1870-1871. This contributed to the formation of Alliances hence a war.

2.      Dissatisfaction in territorial division
The partition of colonies in the Berlin conference of 1884/5 was not fair because some European countries such as Italy was given few colonies compared to other European countries. This created hatred among super powers thus creating grounds for the war.

3.      The rise of military alliances
The Germany sought alliance with Austria and signed a Dual Alliance in 1879 with condition that they have to help each other during the war. Italy joined in 1882 to form Triple Alliance. On the other hand France-Russia treaty was signed 1890 to form Entente Cordially and Britain join later to form Triple Entente. The rival alliances created weapons such as bombs, guns, tanks, and created armies which were ready for the war at any time.

4.      The France desire to regain Alsace and Lorain
Germany annexed the two provinces in Franco-Prussian war of 1870-1871. This created grounds for revenge among the French men hence preparing ground for    WW1.

5.      The Balkan crisis
The Balkan nationalism created conflicts between Austria-Hungary and Serbia and between Austria-Hungary and Russia. The competition between the three powers led to the assassination of Francis Ferdinand hence a WW1.

6.      Moroccan Crisis 1905 and 1911
The conflict was between France and Germany in which Germany declared independence to Morocco which was a France colony.
THE SHORT TERM CAUSE
The immediate cause for WW1 was the assassination of Archduke Francis Franz Ferdinand on 28th June 1914.
THE IMPACTS OF THE FIRST WORLD WAR ON AFRICA
1.      All German colonies such as Tanganyika , Burundi, Rwanda, Namibia, Togo and Cameroon were under League of Nations as mandatory territories. This led to the changing of colonial administrative systems which affected Africans.
2.      Deaths among Africans especially in Germany colonies such as Tanganyika and Togo in which the war was fought.
3.      The spread of disease such as flue which consumed the lives of thousands of Africans for Example in Tanganyika it is approximated about 7000 people died because of flue.
4.      Destruction of properties such as farms, mines and infrastructures like railway were badly destroyed in German colonies.
5.      The fall of the external trade between Europe and Tanganyika due to the destruction of European economies such as banks and industries.
6.      There was increasing exploitation in the colonies such as land alienation, low wages and introduction of agricultural schemes.
THE IMPACTS OF THE WORLD WAR IN EUROPE
1.      The Germany was prevented from building naval ships, airplanes and tanks. The number of her soldiers was limited to 100,000 soldiers.
2.      The Germany was required to pay war reparation of 6500 USD million to the winners of the wars.
3.      The destruction of economies such as industries and trade. During the war time many industries were closed.
4.      Loss of lives for example it is estimated that about 13 million people died while others became disabled and orphans.
5.      It led to the formation of League of Nations which guaranteed world peace and security.
6.      The Alsace and Lorraine province were returned to France from Germany domination.
7.      It led to the Great Economic Depression in 1929-1933 which affected the world economy.
8.      The rise of aggressive policies which prompted to occurrence of WW2.


2. THE GREAT ECONOMIC DEPRESSION 1929- 1933
               This was an economic slump crashed capitalist from 29th October 1929 up to 1933. The depression started in USA and spread to Britain, Canada, Italy, France and Austria and in colonies such as Africa and Asia. The black Tuesday 29th October 1929 was the fourth day of the market crash; it was the worst day in the history of New York Stock Exchange and USA in which the stock of 50 companies dropped from $252 to $62 within four days. Two months later stock holders had lost more than 40 billion.




CHARACTERISTICS OF GREAT ECONOMIC DEPRESSION
1.      Fall of production in industries due to over production
2.      Low prices of crops and goods such as in US the price of wheat declined.
3.      Closure of banks in capitalist world for example in US 5000 banks were closed by 1932.
4.      Unemployment in the world for example over 30 million people had no jobs in US by 1932.
5.      Collapse of the national income.
6.      Low wages, foods shortage and poor social services.
CAPITALIST PRODUCTION CYCLE:






The capitalist production has four major stages.




BOOM STAGE (PEAK)
This is the period when the economy is at the highest level. During this period the economy has the following characteristics:
1.      High level of investment
2.      Lowest level of employment
3.      High standard of living
4.      Social and political stability
5.      Expansion of trade.
CRISIS
This is the temporary decline in the economic activities and it has the following challenges
1.      Decrease in investment
2.      Decrease in employment
3.      Decrease in income
4.      Decrease in trade
5.      Decrease of commodity price

DEPRESSION STAGE
This is the period of total decline in the economy or stagnation of the economy. It has the following characteristics;
1.      Lowest level of investment.
2.      Highest level of employment.
3.      Lower standard of living
4.      Total closure of enterprises and investment
5.      Lowest level of income.
RECOVERY STAGE
This is the period when the economy starts to improve and expand follows after a depression or a recession; It has the following characteristics;
Investments start to expand.
1.      Income increase
2.      Prices start to rise.
3.      Standard of living starts to rise.
4.      Opening of Banks.
THE CAUSES OF THE GREAT ECONOMIC DEPRESSION
1.      The effects of WW1
The war ruined the economies of almost all European countries. Due to the collapse of economies efforts were made to recover economies by producing as much as possible. This created over production of goods due to low consumption hence Great Economic Depression.
2.      High Protective tariffs by US on the imported goods from Europe.
This appealed European countries to put tariffs on US goods as a result market was narrowed to both continents hence over-production and great economic depression.
3.      Un-equal distribution of income
The difference in income between capitalist and workers in which workers were paid inversely proportional to what they produced created a gap between production and consumption hence depression.
4.      The fall of stock exchange.
Stock exchange is a business term which refers to market in which workers were paid inversely proportional to what they produced created a gap between production and consumption hence depression.
5.      The failure of spectators to pay back loans borrowed from banks
Speculators are people who trade commodities, bonds, equities and currencies, the failure to repay the loan affected economy hence great depression.

6.      Nature of the capitalist economy
Economists believe that depression was inevitable due to the fact that any capitalist economy has to pass four phases which are cyclic. Boom, Crisis, Depression and Recovery. There for its nature is what driven it to depression.

EFFECTS OF THE GREAT ECONOMIC DEPRESSION AFRICA
1.      Drastic fall of the prices of raw materials in the African countries for example the price of sisal exported to Europe dropped from 32 pounds per ton to 12 pounds per ton between 1931-1932.
2.      Fall of worker wages; Colonial government reduced the salaries of workers for example in Kenya the worker’s wages fell from 36/=Ksh to 10/= Ksh in 1930.
3.      Unemployment; The depression caused unemployment in many African countries because colonial government retrenched some workers and reduced the size of army.
4.      The introduction of agricultural schemes such as ground nuts schemes in Gambia and Tanganyika.
5.      Intensification of exploitation; post-depression period witnessed the increase of tax, reduction worker’s wages, forced labor, low price of cash crops and long working hours which were introduced by colonialist so as to compensate their economies.
6.      Social welfare for example famine and shortage of food because there was little exportation of goods from Europe to Africa.
THE GENERAL EFFECTS OF GREAT ECONOMIC DEPRESSION

1.      The great economic depression affected the entire capitalist nations and other small states either directly or indirectly.
2.      It led to the bankruptcy of capitalists due to failure of business and closure of enterprises.
3.      Social miseries for example famine and shortage of food.
4.      The great depression, led to the collapse of the League of Nations.
5.      It led to the exploitation of most African resources.
6.      The great depression led to the rise of dictatorship states i.e. Nazism in German, Japan and Italy.
7.      The great economic depression led to withdrawal of US loans to the European countries.





Figure 1: Family during great depression ,Carlifonia , 1932


Figure 2: Buried machinery in a barn lot; May 1933 on the Great Plains coincided with the Great Depression

MEASURES TAKEN BY THE COLONIAL POWERS TO ALLEVIATE THE IMPACT OF THE GREAT DEPRESSION IN THE COLONIES
Several measures were taken by the colonial powers to revamp the impact of the great depression on the metropolitan economies. This includes the following;
1.      The expansion and consolidation of peasant’s cooperation.
2.      Intensification of labor recruitment particularly migrant labor was intensified to meet extra labor free demand.
3.      Increase of taxation. Taxes of various kinds were introduced after the depression in order to expand source of income for the colonial state.
4.      The colonial state allowed peasant to grow prohibited crops in settler’s colonies. For example in Kenya peasant were allowed to grow coffee.
5.      African education curriculum was reviewed to give more emphasis to agricultural education.

STAY TUNED FOR THE FINALIZATION OF THE CRISIS IN THE CAPITALIST SYSTEM, IN WHICH WE SHALL CONTINUE TO DISCUSS ON THE SECOND WORLD WAR
TO BE CONTIUED……
THESE NOTES HAVE BEEN PREPARED BY
TEACHER SOSPETER THOMAS famously known as MWL SOS
PHONE NO: +255753008862,+255655006288,
LOCATED: EMARX TRAINING CENTER, SABA SABA, DODOMA.
HE IS COMPETENT, EXPIRIENCED AND FULLY CAPABLE OF TEACHING HISTORY

Jumamosi, 15 Machi 2014

SARUFI KISWAHILI 4

UCHANGANUZI WA SENTENSI
Tunapoitenga sentensi katika makundi mbalimbali yanayoiunda sentensi hiyo kutoka kundi kubwa hadi dogo kabisa la leksia (neno), hali hiyo ndiyo inayojulikana kama kuchanganua sentensi. Kuchanganua ni kutolea ufafanuzi wa kitu kwa kukielezea kwa mgawanyo wake. Uchanganuzi wa sentensi hupitia hatua zifuatazo:-
                               I.            Kuiainisha sentensi hiyo. Hapa sentensi hutambulishwa kuwa ni aina gani.
                            II.            Kutenga sentensi hiyo katika sehemu zake mbili zinazoiunda, yaani kiima na kiarifu.
                         III.            Kutambulisha makundi ya maneno yanayopatikana katika sehemu hizo.
                         IV.            Kubainisha aina za maneno yanayounda makundi hayo ya maneno.
                            V.            Kuiandika sentensi hiyo kwa kufuatisha aina zake za maneno.
Ipo pia mikabala miwili ya uchanganuzi wa sentensi ambapo yote hufuata hatua zilezile lakini tofauti inayojitokeza ni matumizi ya istilahi za virai upande wa kiarifu.
A)  Mkabala wa kikazi / kimapokeo. Huu hutenga sentensi katika kiima na kiarifu pia hutumia istilahi; Chagizo badala ya Kirai kielezi (KE), Shamirisho badala ya Kirai nomino (KN), na Prediketa badala ya Kirai kitenzi (KT) ila ni katika upande wa kiarifu.
B)  Mkabala wa kimuundo / kisasa. Huu hutenga sentensi katika Kundi nomino na Kundi kitenz na pia hutumia istilahi za kawaida za virai.













NJIA ZA UCHANGANUZI WA SENTENSI
A.    Njia ya matawi / ngowe (mkabala wa kimuundo).
Mfano.

i.                    Mtoto mzuri amenunuliwa zawadi.

S. Sahili.
    
                       

KN                                                                              KT

N                     V                                                         T                                  E


Mtoto              Mzuri                                       amenunuliwa                           zawadi

Mkabala wa kikazi.

S. Sahili.
    
                        K                                 A

                                                            T                      Ch

                    N                     V                                                    E

                                                                                                                       
             Mtoto                   Mzuri            amenunuliwa            zawadi


ii.                  Mwanafunzi aliyefaulu amehama kimyakimya.
Kimuundo
                                                            S. Changamano

                                                KN                                   KT

                        N                                 βV                                                                  

                                                            Ts                    T                                        E
           
Mwanafunzi                              aliyefaulu      amehama                     Kimyakimya
                                                     
                    Kikazi

S. Changamano

                                                K                                      A

                        N                                 βV                   Pr                     Ch

                                                            Ts                    T                                  E
           
Mwanafunzi                               aliyefaulu              amehama                        Kimyakimya








iii.                Mama anapika na Baba anasoma gazeti.
Kimuundo
                                                      S. Ambatano
          
                                          S1                                       S2

                  KN                              KT     U     KN                  KT

              N                                     T                   N                  T                      E
         
  Mama                            anapika           na     Baba                anasoma          gazeti

                  Kikazi
                                                      S. Ambatano
          
                                          S1                                       S2
                              K                     A      U      K                     A

                  N                                 T                N                     T                      Ch

                                                                                                                        E
         
       Mama                             anapika      na    Baba           anasoma            gazeti








B.     Njia ya maelezo.
Kimuundo.
   Mfano; i. Mtoto mfupi anataka chai.
Hii ni sentensi sahili.
Sentensi sahili hii ina Kirai nomino na kirai kitenzi.
Kirai nomino kimeundwa na Nomino na Kivumishi.
Nomino ni ‘Mtoto’.
Kivumishi ni ‘Mzuri’.
Kirai kitenzi kimeundwa na kitenzi kikuu na kirai nomino.
Kitenzi kikuu ni ‘Anataka’.
Kirai nomino hicho kimeundwa na Jina.
Jina hilo ni ‘Chai’.
Kikazi
Hii ni sentensi sahili.
Sentensi hii imeundwa na Kiima na Kiarifu.
Kiima  kina Jina na Kivumishi.
Jina hilo ni ‘Mtoto’.
Kivumishi hicho ni ‘Mzuri’.
Kiarifu kimeundwa na Kitenzi kikuu na Shamirisho.
Kitenzi kikuu ni ‘Anataka’.
Shamirisho ni ‘Chai’.
ii.                  Mama aliyenipenda ameniletea zawadi cha ajabu Mama yangu amechukia.
Kimuundo.
Sentensi hii ni ambatano.
Sentensi hii ina sentensi mbili zinazounganishwa na kiunganishi.
Sentensi ya kwanza ina Kirai nomino na kirai kitenzi.
Kirai nomino kimeunda na Jina na kishazi tegemezi kivumishi.
Jina ni ‘Mama’.
Kishazi tegemezi kivumishi hicho ni kitenzi kisaidizi.
Kitenzi kisaidizi hicho ni ‘Aliyenipenda’.
Kirai kitenzi kimeundwa na kitenzi kikuu na Jina.
Kitenzi kikuu ni ‘Ameniletea’.
Jina ni ‘zawadi’
Kiunganishi ni ‘Cha ajabu’
Sentensi ya pili imeundwa na kirai nomino na kirai kitenzi.
Kirai nomino hicho kimendwa na Jina na kivumishi.
Jina ni ‘Mama’.
Kivumishi ni ‘yangu’.
Kirai kielezi kimeundwa na kitenzi kikuu.
Kitenzi hicho ni ‘amechukia’.
      Kikazi
Sentensi hii ni ambatano.
Sentensi hii ina sentensi mbili zinazounganishwa na kiunganishi.
Sentensi ya kwanza ina Kiima na Kiarifu.
Kiima kimeundwa na Jina na kishazi tegemezi kivumishi.
Jina ni ‘Mama’.
Kishazi tegemezi kivumishi hicho ni kitenzi kisaidizi.
Kitenzi kisaidizi hicho ni ‘Aliyenipenda’.
Kiarifu kimeundwa na kitenzi kikuu na Shamirisho.
Kitenzi kikuu ni ‘Ameniletea’.
Shamirisho ni ‘zawadi’
Kiunganishi ni ‘Cha ajabu’
Sentensi ya pili imeundwa na kiima na Kiarifu.
Kiima kimendwa na Jina na kivumishi.
Jina ni ‘Mama’.
Kivumishi ni ‘yangu’.
Kiarifu kimeunda na Prediketa.
Prediketa hiyo ni ‘amechukia’.




C.    Njia yamshale au Mstari
Mfano.  Mkamwana wake aliyemzalia mwanae watoto amepata matatizo lakini hakwenda kumuona.
            Kimuundo
S                                 Ambatano
S                                  S1 + U +S2
S1                                                 KN + KT
KN                               N + V + βV
N                                  Mkamwana
V                                   Wake
βV                                Ts + V + N
Ts                                 Aliyemzalia
V                                  Mwanae
N                                  Watoto
KT                                T + KN
T                                   Amepata
KN                                N
N                                  Matatizo
U                                  Lakini
S2                                                  KN +KT
KN                                θ
KT                                 Ts + T
TS                                  Hakwenda
T                                    Kumuona







             Kikazi
S                                 Ambatano
S                                  S1 + U +S2
S1                                                K + A
K                                  N + V + βV
N                                  Mkamwana
V                                  Wake
βV                                Ts + V + N
Ts                                 Aliyemzalia
V                                  Mwanae
N                                  Watoto
A                                   Pr + Sh
Pr                                   Amepata
Sh                                N
N                                  Matatizo
U                                  Lakini
S2                                                  K +A
K                                  θ
A                                 Pr
Pr                                 T + Tj
TS                                  Hakwenda
Tj                                    Kumuona









D.    Njia ya visanduku
Mfano; Kijana aliyemleta ameondoka na mtoto haonekani.
      Kimuundo
                                                 S. Ambatano
                   S1
U
                        S2
        KN
         KT

     KN
      KT
N
βV
         T
U
     N
     T
Kijana
aliyemleta
ameondoka
na
mtoto
haonekani
     N
   TS
       T
U
      N
      T


Kikazi
                                                 S. Ambatano
                   S1
U
                        S2
        K
         A

     K
      A
N
βV
         Pr
U
     N
     Pr
Kijana
aliyemleta
ameondoka
na
mtoto
haonekani
    N
      TS
          T
U
      N
       T








Mfano 2. Mwalimu aliyefukuzwa jana shuleni amerudi kwao.
           Kimuundo
                                                                          S. Changamano
                      KN
                          KT
        N
                       βV
              T
           E
Mwalimu
aliyefukuzwa
jana
shuleni
amerudi
kwao
        N
      Ts
 E1
E2
      T
    E


              Kikazi
                                                                          S. Changamano
                      K
                          A
        N
                       βV
              Pr
           Ch
Mwalimu
aliyefukuzwa
jana
shuleni
amerudi
kwao
        N
      Ts
 E1
E2
      T
    E











ZOEZI
1.      ‘Kila sentensi ni tungo ila si kila tungo ni bsentensi’. Thibitisha kwa mifano ya kutosha.
2.      Kwa mifano eleza maana ya istilahi zifuatazo:-
a.       Kiima
b.      Kiarifu
c.       Yambwa
d.      Shamirisho
e.       Chagizo
f.       Sentensi
g.      Sentensi shurutia
3.      Kwa mifano fafanua miundo tofautitofauti ya aina zifuatazo za sentensi.
a.       Sentensi sahili
b.      Sentensi shurutia
c.       Sentensi ambatano
d.      Sentensi changamano
4.      Taja vipashio vya:-
a.       Kiima
b.      Kiarifu
5.      Bainisha mikabala na hatua za kufuatwa katika kuchanganua sentensi.
6.      Changanua sentensi hii kwa kutumia mikabala yote miwili kwa njia ya Ngowe:
-          Mwanafunzi aliyehitimu amefaulu na amewafurahisha wazazi wake.
7.      Changanua sentensi zifuatazo kwa kufuata maelekezo katika mabano.
-          Mtoto amefariki. (Ngowe – Kimuundo)
-          Mtoto amefika ila aliyemleta hafahamiki. (Mshale – Kikazi)
-          Angelijua, angelisoma kwa kuwa hakusoma ameshindwa mtihani. ( Jedwali – kimuundo na kikazi).
-          Mtu akifa anazikwa lakini Ng’ombe akifa anatupwa. ( Maelezo- kimuundo).




                               NGELI ZA NOMINO
    Ni namna ya kuweka majina katika makundi yanayofanana. Majina ya Kiswahili yanaweza kuwekwa katika makundi mbalimbali. Makundi hayo yamegawa na wanaisimu ya Kiswahili kwa kuzingatia maumbo ya alomofu za umoja na uwingi wa majina (kimofolojia) na kwa kuzingatia namna majina yanavyopatana na viambishi awali vya vitenzi (upatanisho wa kisarufi / kisintaksia).
1.      Kimofolojia: Katika kigezo hiki wanaisimu wameyapanga majina kulingana na alomofu za umoja na uwingi za majina hayo. Huu ni mtazamo mkongwe ambao uliofuatwa na wanasarufi wa kimapokeo wakiongozwa na Meinholf, Broomfield na Ashton mnamo miaka ya 1920 – 50. Uchambuzi ulikua kama ifuatavyo:-
1.      M-
2.      WA-
i). Majina ya viumbe vyenye uhai
ispokuwa mimea. Mfano; Mtoto – Watoto, Mzee – Wazee, Mkurya - Wakurya
ii) Majina yanayotokana na vitenzi
vinavyotaja watu. Mfano; Msomi – Wasomi, Mkulima – Wakulima, Mfanyakazi – Wafanyakazi.
3.     M-
4.      MI-
i). Majina ya mimea. Mfano; Mti – Miti, Mwembe, Miembe, Mpera – Mipera.
ii) Majina ya vitu yanayoanza na M- Mfano; Mto – Mito, Msumari – Misumari.
5.      KI-
6.      VI-
i). Majina ya vitu yanayoanza na ki- (umoja) na vi- (wingi). Mfano; Kiti – Viti, Kisu – Visu, Kikapu – Vikapu.
ii). Majina ya viumbe yanayoambishwa na ch- umoja na vy-uwingi. Mfano; Chura – Vyura, Chakula – Vyakula, Chuma – Vyuma.
7.      JI-
8.      MA-
i). Majina yanayoanza na ji- umoja na ma- uwingi. Mfano; Jicho – Macho, Jini – Majini, Jiwe – Mawe, Jina – Majina.
ii). Majina ya mkopo yenye ma- (wingi). Mfano; Bwana – Mabwana, Shati – Mashati.
iii). Majina yenye kueleza dhanna ya wingi japokuwa hayahesabiki. Maji, Majani, Maua, Maini.
9.      N-
i). Majina ambayo huanza na N inayofuatwa na konsonanti, ch-, d-,
g-, j-, z-, na y- katika umoja na wingi. Mfano; Nchi, Ndama, Ngoma, Njaa, Nzi, Nyasi.
ii). Majina yanayoanza na mb-, mv. Mfano; Mbwa, Mvi.
iii). Majina ya mkopo. Mfano; Taa, redio, Kompyuta, Kalamu.
10.  U-
11.  N-
i). Majina yote yanayoanza na U umoja na N-, mb (wingi). Mfano; Ubao – Mbao, Ulimi – Ndimi, Uso – Nyuso.
12.  U-
13.  MA-
i). Majina yote yanayoanza na uumoja na ma- wingi. Mfano; Uasi – Maasi, Uchweo – Machweo, Ugonjwa – Magonjwa.
14.  KU-
i). Majina yanayotokana na vitenzi yanayoanza na ku- (vitenzi-jina). Mfano; kucheza, Kulima, Kuimba, Kupenda.
15.  PA-

i). Huonesha mahali hasa. Mfano; Pale
16.  MU-
i). Huonesha mahali pa ndani. Mfano; Mule
17.  KU
i). Huonesha mahali pa mbali, pakubwa zaidi au popote. Mfano; Kule

UBORA WA KIGEZO CHA KIMOFOLOJIA
                   I.            Uwezekano wa kuzigawa nomino nyingi za Kiswahili ni mkubwa kwa kuwa nyingi zimegawanyika katika maumbo hayo ya umojha na uwingi.
                II.            Ni kigezo muhimu kwani kinajikita zaidi katika nomino na kivumishi chake peke yake hakigusi aina nyingine ya neno tofauti na kigeso cha kisintaksia ambacho hugusa hadi kitenzi.
             III.            Huwasaidia wanasarufi linganishi kuonesha uhusiano wa lugha za vikoa kimoja.

        UPUNGUFU WA KIGEZO HIKI.
                               I.            Kuna viambishi katika ngeli tofauti vinavyofanana. Mfano Kiambishi M- kinajitokeza katika ngeli ya 1 na 3 na MA- inajitokeza katika ngeli ya 8 na 13.
                            II.            Kuna nomino nyingine ambazo hazijidhihirishi katika umoja na uwingi. Mfano ngeli ya 8 na 9.
2.      Kigezo cha sintaksia /upatanisho wa kisarufi:
   Huu ni mtazamo wa kisasa wa uainishaji wa ngeli ambao umeyagawa majina katika makundi kulingana na upatanisho wa kisarufi kat ya jina na viambishi awali vilivyo katika vitenzi. Kwa mujibu wa mtazamo huu, majina yamepangwa katika makundi tisa ambayo ni:-
1.      A -WA
Mfano; Mtoto anacheza / Watoto wanacheza.
            Mzee analima / Wazee wanalima.
             Mwanafunzi anasoma / Wanafunzi wanasoma.
2.      U – I
Mfano; Mkufu umekatika / Mikufu imekatika.
             Mji umevamiwa / Miji imevamiwa.
             Mkaa umemwagika / Mikaa imemwagika.
3.      LI – YA
Mfano; Gogo limevunjika / Magogo yamevunjika.
             Gari limepotea / Magari yamepotea.
              Jiko limewaka / Majiko yamewaka
4.      KI – VI
Mfano;   Kiapo kimekiukwa / Viapo vimekiukwa.
               Kilima kimesawazishwa / Vilima vimesawazishwa.
               Kikongwe kimeuawa / Vikongwe vimeuawa.
5.      I – ZI
Mfano; Ng’ombe imechinjwa / Ng’ombe zimechinjwa.
             Nguo imechanika / Nguo zimechanika.
              Nchi imekosa amani / Nchi zimekosa amani.
6.      U – ZI
Mfano; Ubao umeandikika / Mbao zimeandikika.
             Ukuta umeanguka / Kuta zimeanguka.
             Uzi umetumika / Nyuzi zimetumika.
7.      U – YA
Mfano; Ugonjwa unatisha / Magonjwa yanatisha.
             Uasi umekithiri / Maasi yamekithiri.
8.      KU
Mfano; Kulima kunachosha.
             Kuimba kwake kunafurahisha.
           Kufurahi kwake kumemponya.
9.      PA – MU - KU
Mfano; Hapa pananuka.
             Humu mna nzi.
             Kule kumebomoka.
UBORA WA KIGEZO CHA KISINTAKSIA
n  Unajitosheleza kwa kuwa kila jina inakuwa na upatanishi wake katika kitenzi.
UPUNGUFU WA KIGEZO HIKI
I.                   Kuna viambishi vinavyojirudia. Mfano, U- kimejitokeza katika ngeli ya 2, 6 na 7.
II.                Huyaweka majina yenye maumbo tofauti katika ngeli moja.
III.             Kunaweza kuwa na utata katika upatanisho kwa baadhi ya majina kama “makala”
      Mfano; Makala yamechapishwa.
                  Makala imechapishwa.
Sentensi hizo zote zinatumika ila hatuna wingi wa makala katika Kiswahili.

ZOEZI
1.      Eleza dhana zifuatazo kwa makini:-
a.       Ngeli za majina
b.      Ngeli za majina kimofolojia
c.       Upatanisho wa kisarufi
2.      Yapange majina yafuatayo kwa kigezo cha sarufi mapokeo:- Nazi, Chungwa, Mtu, Mchanga, Ukuta, Ulimi, Uovu, Chapati, Maliwato, Pale, Panga, Kisima, Godoro, Nhi, Mchungwa.
3.      Fafanua faida na hasara za kila mkabalka wa uainishaji wa ngeli za majina.
4.      Onesha mpangilio wa ngeli za majina kisintaksia kisha uoneshe mapungu yake.










                  NJIA ZA UUNZI WA MISAMIATI
            Msamiati ni jumla ya maneno yanayopatikana katika lugha. Uundaji wa maneno mapya ni ujuzi ulioanza tangu awali mwanadamu alipoipata lugha ili kuiwezesha lugha yake kuwa toshelevu na endelevu. Uundaji wa maneno huja mara baada ya kuwepo kwa vitu vipya mwanadamu anavyokutana navyo katika mazingira yake.
            Kwa nini tuunde maneno mapya?
·         Kuwezesha matumizi ya kawaida yanayobadilika kila siku.
·         Kuwezesha kukua kwa taaluma ya utafsiri.
·         Kupata msamiati kubalifu katika muktadha mahsusi.
·         Kukuza utamaduni wa jamii.
·         Kukidhi haja ya kitaaluma / kielimu.
Njia za uundaji wa maneno.
                               I.            Uradidi, katika njia hii neno au silabi huweza kurudiwa rudiwa ili kupata maneno mapya katika lugha. Neno lote linaporudiwa tunapata urudufu kamili, lakini tukirudia sehemu ya neno tunaita urudufu nusu.
Mfano; polepole, harakaharaka, kizunguzungu, kiwiliwili.
                            II.            Kufupisha maneno, ufupisha hutokea pale tunapochukua herufi za mwanzo za maneno hayo. Kuna aina mbili za ufupisho wa maneno:-
a.       Akronimi ni ufupisho wa kuchukua herufi za mwanzoni mwa maneno tu. Mfano; UKIMWI – Upungufu wa Kinga Mwilini.
CHANETA – Chama cha Netiboli Tanzania.
                                                            TUKI – Taasisi ya Uchunguzi wa Kiswahili.
b.      Uhulutishaji (blending) ni ufupisho wa kuweka pamoja vijisehemu vya maneno kuunda neno jipya.
Mfano; Msikwao – Mtu asiye na kwao.
            Joto baridi – Jotoridi
            Mnyama mfu – Nyamafu
                         III.            Kufananisha sauti, baadhi ya maneno ya Kiswahili yametokana na uwigaji wa sauti au dhana ya kitu Fulani.
Mfano; Pikipiki – Limetokana na mlio wa chombo hicho.
Kifaru – zana ya kivita, umbo lake linafanana na kifaru    mnyama.
                         IV.            Kuambatanisha maneno, hapa maneno mawili tofauti hushikamanishwa na kuwa neno moja lenye maana tofauti na ile ya kwanza. Mfano; Mwanakwetu, Mcheza kwao, Mwananchi, Mwanachama, Mfamaji, Mpigambizi n.k.
                            V.            Kutohoa maneno, ni mchakato wa kuhamisha maneno kutoka lugha moja kwenda lugha nyingine na kuyatumia jinsi yalivyo huku yakibadilishwa kuwaq na muundo wa maneno ya lugha hiyo. Kiswahili kimetohoa maneno kutoka lugha mbalimbali kama;
a.      kiingereza maneno kama; shati, baiskeli, kompyuta, trekta, waya, redio n.k.
b.      Kiajemi maneno kama; bafta, kodi, darubini, jemedari, rosheni, randa n.k.
c.       Kihindi maneno kama; kanuni, achali, gari, bajia, bima, tumbaku, dobi n.k.
d.      Kiarabu maneno kama; hisani, salama, shukurani, daima, elimu, kauli, fahamu, mahabusu, ila, kulaki n.k.
e.       Kireno maneno kama; meza, mvinyo, seti, korosho, leso, kopa, roda, dama n.k.

ZOEZI
1.      Eleza njia zilizotumika katika kuunda maneno haya ya Kiswahili.
a.       Kiherehere
b.      Mtukwao
c.       Simu ya mkononi
d.      Baiskeli
e.       UKUTA
f.       Mkono wa tembo
g.      Kifaru









                                    WASIFU WA MWANDISHI
Yusuph P Mhindi, alizaliwa miaka 25 iliyopita mjini Mugumu wilayani Serengeti mkoani Mara. Akiwa na miaka saba baada ya kuzaliwa alianza masomo ya elimu ya msingi katika shule ya msingi Mapinduzi iliyoko Mjini Mugumu wilayani Serengeti – Mara.
Alipohitimu elimu ya msingi, alifanikiwa kujiendeleza na Elimu ya sekondari ambapo alisoma Machochwe Shule ya Upili, Bwasi Shule ya Upili na hatimaye safari yake ya Elimu ya Sekondari ilitamatika akiwa Nyansincha Sekondari huko Mara Tanzania.
Hakuishia hapo alijiimarisha zaidi kielimu baada ya kujiunga na Elimu ya Kidato cha tano na sita kwa mchepuo wa sanaa masomo ya Historia, Kiingereza na Kiswahili katika Shule ya Upili Kibara. Na rehema za Mwenyezi Mungu zikizidi kuwa tunu kwake kwani alifaulu pia.
Alijiunga na Chuo Kikuu cha Mt. Augustino kilichopo Jijini Mwanza kwa Shahada ya Sanaa na Elimu, akiwa amejikita katika masomo ya lugha yaani Kiswahili na Kiingereza nakufanikiwa kufanya utafiti juu ya ‘Athari za Kazi za Wazazi kwa Machaguzi ya Kazi kwa Watoto.’  Alihitimu masomo hayo mwaka  2013.
Ameshawahi kuwa mwalimu wa kujitolea katika shule kadhaa zikiwemo Chitengule Sekondari, Kabasa Sekondari, Nyakurunduma Sekondari, Imani Sekondari na kote huko amekuwa akifundisha zaidi somo la Kiswahili na Kiingereza na sasa ameajiliwa kwa muda katika Taasisi ya Elimu Emarx iliyopo mjini Dodoma kama mwalimu wa somo la Kiswahili.
Hii ni chapa yake ya kwanza kama Kitini na anajitayarisha kufanya mapinduzi katika tasnia ya uandishi wa vitabu vya Taaluma na hata vya kijamii pia.
Mungu mbariki Yusuph P Mhindi, ibariki sekta ya Elimu Tanzania, ibariki Tanzania na bara zima la Afrika.


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